ABOUT THIS PARAMETER

air changes per hour

How many times per hour the air inside a given room or building is replaced.

Used to calculate:fossil fuels consumed and biomass fuels consumed

Varies by: ecosystem

Used ecosystem Reference Location: Ecosystem
(study period)
Value Units Notes
* Agricultural field / vegetable garden Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Airfield Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Airport terminal Parker, James et al. 2011 Using Building Simulation to Evaluate Low Carbon Refurbishment Options for Airport Buildings Global: airport terminals (2011) 0.45 air changes / hour 0.45 air change/hr
* Alley Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Apartment building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 1.6 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Apartment 6 - 10 stories
Apartment building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 1 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Apartment 1-5 stories
* Beach Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Bike lane Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Bioswale Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Boulevard (arterial) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Camp Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Cemetery Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Cistern / rain barrels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Cliffs and rock outcrops Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Cogeneration plant Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Compost bin Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Computer data center Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Cottages / Mobile home Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 1.15 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Dwelling 1 story
* Deep water estuary Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Derelict structures Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 1.15 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Dwelling 1 story
* Diesel power plant Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Disturbed Land Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Eelgrass meadow Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Elevated train Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Estuary Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Factory Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Freshwater marsh Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Fuel storage tank Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Garage Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Gas station Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.9 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 1: naturally ventilated, 100 – 3000 m2
* Geothermal pump Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Graywater recycling Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Greenhouse / vertical farm Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 1.15 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Dwelling 1 story
* Green roof Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Hardwood swamp Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Heavy rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Hemlock – northern hardwood forest Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* High salt marsh Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Highway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Hospital Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.6 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Hospitals and Health Care buildings
* Hotel Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.85 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: hotel
* Landfill Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Lawn Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Light rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Low salt marsh Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Meadow Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Mixed use: office / residential building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.6 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 3: air conditioned, 2000–8000m2
* Mixed use: restaurant / office building Ng, Lisa C. et al. 2012 Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings United States: restaurants (2012) 0.68 air changes / hour mean medium office
* Mixed use: restaurant / residential building EPA 2011 Exposure Factors Handbook United States: restaurant/residential (2011) 0.71 air changes / hour arithmetic mean of Northeast Region
* Mixed use: restaurant / retail building Ng, Lisa C. et al. 2012 Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings United States: restaurants (2012) 1.03 air changes / hour mean retail
* Mixed use: retail / office building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.6 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 3: air conditioned, 2000–8000m2
* Mixed use: retail / residential building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.6 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 3: air conditioned, 2000–8000m2
* Natural gas power plant Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Oak hickory forest Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Office building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.6 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 3: air conditioned, 2000–8000m2
Office building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 4: air conditioned HQ-type building, 4000–20000 m2
Office building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.9 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 1: naturally ventilated, 100 – 3000 m2
Office building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.7 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 2: naturally ventilated, 500–4000 m2
* Orchard Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Ornamental garden Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Parking lot Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Park savanna Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Paved ball field/court Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Pedestrian bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Pedestrian street / plaza Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Permeable pavers Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Photovoltaic panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Pier Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Pond Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Public assembly hall Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
Puddles on hardtops NULL REFERENCE NULL REFERENCE LOCATON: NULL ECOSYSTEM (NULL STUDY PERIOD) None DUMMY UNIT
* Restaurant Ng, Lisa C. et al. 2012 Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings United States: restaurants (2012) 4.83 air changes / hour take the mean outdoor air change rate for full service restaurant
* Retail building Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.6 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Office Type 3: air conditioned, 2000–8000m2
* School or university Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.7 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: School
* Sewage treatment plant Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Shrub land Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Sidewalk Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Single family home Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 1.15 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Dwelling 1 story
* Solar energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Solar heating panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Solid waste transfer plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Stadium Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Stream Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Streetcar line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Street (collector) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Street trees Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Subway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Swimming pool Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Tidal energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Traffic slowed street Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Trail Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Tunnel Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Utility yard Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour
* Warehouse Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Waste energy power plant Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Water treatment plant Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour Maximum average air infiltration rate for a 'leaky' building: Factories, warehouses, halls
* Water/wastewater storage tank Anon 2013 Natural Ventilation Heat Loss Global: Buildings () 0.65 air changes / hour
* Wind farm Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 air changes / hour

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