ABOUT THIS PARAMETER

soil respiration rate density

The amount of carbon dioxide released by soil organisms per unit area over a given period of time.

Used to calculate:photosynthesis and respiration

Varies by: ecosystem

Used ecosystem Reference Location: Ecosystem
(study period)
Value Units Notes
* Agricultural field / vegetable garden Raich and Schlesinger 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Global: Croplands and Fields () 544 g C / m2 / year
* Airfield Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Airport terminal Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Alley Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Apartment building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Beach Rowland et al. 2000- Effects of beach sand properties, temperature and rainfall on the degradation rates of oil in buried oil/beach sand mixtures Scotland and Wales: beach (1997-1998) 163.920647 g C / m2 / year This value represents the soil respiration rate density for a beach in Largo, Scotland.
* Bike lane Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Bioswale Lloyd 2006- Annual carbon balance of a managed wetland meadow in the Somerset Levels, UK Somerset Levels, UK: managed peat wetland (2000-2003) 3.18 µmol / m2 / s This value refers to the soil respiration rate density for late July and early August. We assume the same soil respiration rate density as that of a freshwater marsh.
* Boulevard (arterial) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Camp Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 100 g C / m2 / year We assume the same soil respiration rate density as that of a lawn. This value represents the heterotrophic respiration of a lawn with no management.
* Cemetery Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 146 g C / m2 / year This value refers to the heterotrophic respiration rate of a moderately fertilized lawn with clippings removed.
* Cistern / rain barrels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Cliffs and rock outcrops Yuan 2006 Soil and vegetation on cliffs of abandoned quarries Southern China: Quarries (2003-2006) 10.1 µmol / m2 / s Yuan (2006) reports that soils collected from cliff faces resemble the soil type present at the top of each cliff. For this parameter we assume the same soil respiration rate density as that of shrub land.
* Cogeneration plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Compost bin Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Computer data center Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Cottages / Mobile home Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Deep water estuary Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Yellow River Estuary, China: Estuary (November 2009) 0.24 µmol / m2 / s
* Derelict structures Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Diesel power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Disturbed Land ORNL 2012- Global Database of Soil Respiration Data Missouri: agricultural field (1984-1986) 1466.636364 g C / m2 / year This value refers to an average of eleven studies compiled by Oak Ridge National Laboratory on soil respiration of aggrading disturbed lands in the United States.
* Eelgrass meadow Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Yellow River Estuary, China: Estuary (May 2009) 1.06 µmol / m2 / s We have assumed same soil respiration rate density of an estuary for eelgrass meadows. This value is the average soil respiration for the measuring period in May 2009.
Eelgrass meadow Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Liaohe River Estuary, China: Estuary (November 2009) 0.11 µmol / m2 / s We have assumed same soil respiration rate density of an estuary for eelgrass meadows. This value is the average soil respiration rate during the measuring period in November.
Eelgrass meadow Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Liaohe River Estuary, China: Estuary (May 2009) 0.065 µmol / m2 / s We have assumed same soil respiration rate density of an estuary for eelgrass meadows. This value is the average of the range of soil respiration rates during the measuring period in May.
Eelgrass meadow Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Yellow River Estuary, China: Estuary (November 2009) 0.24 µmol / m2 / s We have assumed same soil respiration rate density of an estuary for eelgrass meadows. This value is the average soil respiration rate during the measuring period in November.
* Elevated train Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Estuary Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Yellow River Estuary, China: Estuary (November 2009) 0.24 µmol / m2 / s This value is the average soil respiration rate during the measuring period in November.
Estuary Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Liaohe River Estuary, China: Estuary (November 2009) 0.11 µmol / m2 / s This value is the average soil respiration rate during the measuring period in November.
Estuary Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Liaohe River Estuary, China: Estuary (May 2009) 0.065 µmol / m2 / s This value is the average of the range of soil respiration rates during the measuring period in May.
Estuary Luo & Xing 2010 - Comparative Study on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Respiration Yellow River Estuary, China: Estuary (May 2009) 1.06 µmol / m2 / s This value is the average soil respiration for the measuring period in May 2009.
* Factory Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Freshwater marsh Lloyd 2006- Annual carbon balance of a managed wetland meadow in the Somerset Levels, UK Somerset Levels, UK: managed peat wetland (2000-2003) 3.18 µmol / m2 / s This value refers to the soil respiration rate density for late July and early August.
* Fuel storage tank Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Garage Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Gas station Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Geothermal pump Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Graywater recycling Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Greenhouse / vertical farm Scharenbroch 2011. A microcosm study of the common night crawler earthworm and physical, chemical and biological properties of a designed urban soil Chicago: Greenhouse () 12.272134 g CO2 / m2 / y
* Green roof Raich and Schlesinger 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Global: Croplands and Fields () 54.4 g C / m2 / year We assume the one-tenth the soil respiration rate density as that of an agricultural field.
* Hardwood swamp Singh and Gupta, 1977. Plant decomposition and soil respiration in terrestrial ecosystems Quebec: Hardwood Swamp () 1200 g CO2 / m2 / y
* Heavy rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Hemlock – northern hardwood forest Raich and Schlesinger 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Global: Temperate Coniferous Forests () 681 g C / m2 / year
* High salt marsh Wigand, Cathleen et al. 2009 Soil respiration rates in coastal marshes subject to increasing watershed nitrogen loads in southern New England, USA New England: low/high salt marsh (2009) 4.39 µmol / m2 / s used RUM marsh
* Highway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Hospital Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Hotel Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Landfill Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 146 g C / m2 / year This value refers to lawns that are fertilized between one and three times per year with clippings removed.
* Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 146 g C / m2 / year This is the heterotrophic respiration of a lawn treated with moderate fertilizer whose clippings were removed.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 213 g C / m2 / year This is the heterotrophic respiration of a lawn treated with a high amount of fertilizer whose clippings were removed.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 100 g C / m2 / year This is the heterotrophic respiration of a lawn with no management.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 357 g C / m2 / year This is the heterotrophic respiration of a lawn treated with a high amount of fertilizer whose clippings were left on.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 245 g C / m2 / year This is the heterotrophic respiration of a lawn treated with moderate fertilizer whose clippings were left on.
* Light rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Low salt marsh Wigand, Cathleen et al. 2009 Soil respiration rates in coastal marshes subject to increasing watershed nitrogen loads in southern New England, USA New England: low/high salt marsh (2009) 1.92 µmol / m2 / s used RUM marsh
* Meadow Raich and Schlesinger 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Global: Temperate Grasslands () 442 g C / m2 / year
* Mixed use: office / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / retail building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: retail / office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: retail / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Natural gas power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Oak hickory forest Raich and Schlesinger 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Global: Temperate Deciduous Forests () 647 g C / m2 / year
Oak hickory forest Hibbard et. al. 2005 - An Analysis of Soil Respiration across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems AmeriFlux and CarboEurope sites: deciduous broadleaf forest () 2.4 µmol / m2 / s This value is the mean soil respiration rate for deciduous broadleaf forest sites.
Oak hickory forest Singh and Gupta, 1977. Plant decomposition and soil respiration in terrestrial ecosystems Minnesota, U.S.A.: Oak forest () 333 mg CO2 / m2 / hr This value represents the yearly mean of soil respiration in an oak forest in Minnesota.
* Office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Orchard Wu et. al. 2012 - Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees China: Apple Orchard () 1.3 kg C / m2 / yr This value is the annual soil respiration rate of a 5-year-old orchard.
Orchard Wu et. al. 2012 - Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees China: Apple Orchard () 1.6 kg C / m2 / yr This value is the annual soil respiration rate of an 18-year-old orchard.
Orchard Wu et. al. 2012 - Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees China: Apple Orchard () 1.2 kg C / m2 / yr This value is the annual soil respiration rate of a 22-year-old orchard.
* Ornamental garden Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 100 g C / m2 / year Assumed to be the same (or similar to) the heterotrophic respiration of a lawn with no management.
Ornamental garden Raich and Schlesinger 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Global: Croplands and Fields () 544 g C / m2 / year
* Parking lot Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Park savanna Bond-Lamberty, B. and Thomson, A. 2010 A global database of soil respiration data Denmark: park savanna (2010) 1048 g C / m2 / year
* Paved ball field/court Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Pedestrian bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Pedestrian street / plaza Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Permeable pavers Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Photovoltaic panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Pier Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Pond Fisher 1977 - Organic Matter Processing by a Stream-Segment Ecosystem Fort River, Massachusetts, U.S.A.: Stream-Segment Ecosystem () 164.3589 g / m2 / year value for a stream
* Public assembly hall Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
Puddles on hardtops NULL REFERENCE NULL REFERENCE LOCATON: NULL ECOSYSTEM (NULL STUDY PERIOD) None DUMMY UNIT
* Restaurant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Retail building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* School or university Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Sewage treatment plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Shrub land Hibbard et. al. 2005 - An Analysis of Soil Respiration across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems AmeriFlux and CarboEurope sites: Grassland/shrublands () 1.7 µmol / m2 / s This value is the biome average soil respiration rate of grasslands.
Shrub land Hibbard et. al. 2005 - An Analysis of Soil Respiration across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems AmeriFlux and CarboEurope sites: Grassland/shrublands () 10.1 µmol / m2 / s This value is the average of the two reported standardized soil respiration rates for pooled values from grassland/shrublands.
Shrub land Hibbard et. al. 2005 - An Analysis of Soil Respiration across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems AmeriFlux and CarboEurope sites: Grassland/shrublands () 1.2 µmol / m2 / s This value is the biome average soil respiration during the growing season of woodland/savannas.
* Sidewalk Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Single family home Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Solar energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Solar heating panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Solid waste transfer plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Stadium Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Stream Fisher 1977 - Organic Matter Processing by a Stream-Segment Ecosystem Fort River, Massachusetts, U.S.A.: Stream-Segment Ecosystem () 164.3589 g / m2 / year This value represents the respiration output from coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) in a stream-segmented ecosystem. CPOMs are defined as fragments retained by a 1.0 mm mesh drift net. We converted the value reported from g/m2/day to g/m2/year in order to calculate an annual value.
* Streetcar line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Street (collector) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Street trees ORNL 1984- Worldwide Organic Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Data global: all (1952-1984) 1466.636364 g C / m2 / year We assumed the same value as disturbed land. This value refers to an average of eleven studies compiled by Oak Ridge National Laboratory on soil respiration of aggrading disturbed lands in the United States.
* Subway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Swimming pool Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Tidal energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Traffic slowed street Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Trail Rochette et al. 1991- Spatial and temporal variability of soil respiration in agricultural fields Ottawa, Canada: agricultural field (1988-1989) 5.1 µmol / m2 / s This value refers to the soil respiration rate density of soil that is repeatedly mechanically compacted in an agricultural field.
* Tunnel Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Utility yard Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Warehouse Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Waste energy power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Water treatment plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Water/wastewater storage tank Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg C / m2 / yr
* Wind farm Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year

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