ABOUT THIS PARAMETER

litterfall rate density

The amount of falling leaves, lawn clippings, and other downed plant biomass over a given period of time per unit area.

Used to calculate:plant senescence

Varies by: ecosystem

Used ecosystem Reference Location: Ecosystem
(study period)
Value Units Notes
* Agricultural field / vegetable garden Penn State 2013 Crop residue production of different crops in rotation Pennsylvania: Agricultural Fields (dates not provided) 2088 lbs dry matter / acre / year Soybeans
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Penn State 2013 Crop residue production of different crops in rotation Pennsylvania: Agricultural Fields (dates not provided) 6152 lbs dry matter / acre / year Corn
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Penn State 2013 Crop residue production of different crops in rotation Pennsylvania: Agricultural Fields (dates not provided) 4435 lbs dry matter / acre / year Barley
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Penn State 2013 Crop residue production of different crops in rotation Pennsylvania: Agricultural Fields (dates not provided) 4356 lbs dry matter / acre / year Wheat
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Penn State 2013 Crop residue production of different crops in rotation Pennsylvania: Agricultural Fields (dates not provided) 6539 lbs dry matter / acre / year Sorghum
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Sangha et al. 2006- Litter Production, Decomposition and Nutrient Release in Cleared and Uncleared Pasture Systems of Central Queensland, Australia Queensland, Australia: pasture (2001-2002) 86.6 g / m2 / year This value refers to the litterfall rate density of eucalyptus pasture land that was converted from natural forest land five years prior to this study.
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Penn State 2013 Crop residue production of different crops in rotation Pennsylvania: Agricultural Fields (dates not provided) 3696 lbs dry matter / acre / year Rye
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Penn State 2013 Crop residue production of different crops in rotation Pennsylvania: Agricultural Fields (dates not provided) 1690 lbs dry matter / acre / year Oats
* Airfield Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Airport terminal Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Alley Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Apartment building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Beach Lichter - PRIMARY SUCCESSION AND FOREST DEVELOPMENT ONCOASTAL LAKE MICHIGAN SAND DUNES Michigan: Beach (1996-1998) 175 Mg / ha / yr
Beach Lichter - PRIMARY SUCCESSION AND FOREST DEVELOPMENT ONCOASTAL LAKE MICHIGAN SAND DUNES Michigan: Beach (1996-1998) 350 Mg / ha / yr
* Bike lane Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Bioswale Cormier et. al. 2012 - Periodicity in Stem Growth and Litterfall in Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands: Influence of Salinity and Drought on Nitrogen Recycling Waccamaw River, South Carolina: Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetland () 365.0333 g / m2 / year We assume the same litterfall rate density as that of a freshwater marsh. This value is the average of the litterfall rates measured from 2005-2009 in the upper, middle, and lower tidal swamp sites along the Waccamaw River.
* Boulevard (arterial) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Camp Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 26 g C / m2 / year We assume the same litterfall rate density as that of a lawn. This value refers to a lawn that has been left unmanaged.
* Cemetery Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 71 g C / m2 / year This is the estimate of lawn clippings for a lawn with a moderate amount of fertilizer whose clippings were removed.
* Cistern / rain barrels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Cliffs and rock outcrops Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 25 g / m2 / year Estimated based on comparison to other natural ecosystems
* Cogeneration plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Compost bin Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Computer data center Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Cottages / Mobile home Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Deep water estuary NOAA 2015 Data compilations for primary production, herbivory, decomposition, and export for different types of marine communities, 1962-2002 (NODC Accession 0054500) Global: deepwater estuary (2015) 37.661 g C / m2 / year use detritus column (litterfall rate density) for all three of marine phytoplankton, benthic microalgal beds, seagrass meadows
* Derelict structures Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Diesel power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Disturbed Land Maraseni et al. 2008- Comparing and Predicting Soil Carbon Quantities Under Different Land-use Systems on the Red Ferrosol Soils of Southeast Queensland Inland Burnett, Queensland, New Zealand: agricultural field () 0.014 g C / m2 / year This value represents the litterfall rate density of scrub land that was used for agricultural production for 30 years before being converted into pasture land. This value was determined 25 years after succession to pasture land. It reflects the combined litter density of twigs and leaves.
Disturbed Land Shure & Phillips 1987 - Litter Fall Patterns within Different-sized Disturbance Patches in a Southern Appalachian Mountain Forest Nantahala National Forest, North Carolina: Disturbed Mixed-Mesophytic Forest () 365.1 g / m2 / year This value represents the total leaf fall rate density of the overall study area of forest disturbance patches in North Carolina.
* Eelgrass meadow Larkum, Orth, Duarte 2006- Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology, and Conservation Global: Seagrass () 20 g / m2 / year Average leaf fall. This was estimated as the total demand of N but did not include the part ingested by herbivores. It was also multiplied by 0.74, which was the average fraction of N in falling leaves, relative to living leaves.
* Elevated train Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Estuary Findlay 2011 Primary production ... Hudson [River Estuary] Hudson River Estuary: estuary () 650 g C / m2 / year Allochthonous inputs are estimated at 650 gC / m2 / yr, mainly from up river sources. Note that locally phytoplankton and submerged vegetation are estimated to contribute 20 g C / m2 / yr and upwelling 16 g C / m2 / yr
* Factory Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Freshwater marsh Cormier et. al. 2012 - Periodicity in Stem Growth and Litterfall in Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands: Influence of Salinity and Drought on Nitrogen Recycling Waccamaw River, South Carolina: Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetland () 365.0333 g / m2 / year This value is the average of the litterfall rates measured from 2005-2009 in the upper, middle, and lower tidal swamp sites along the Waccamaw River.
* Fuel storage tank Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Garage Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 Mg / ha / yr
* Gas station Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Geothermal pump Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Graywater recycling Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Greenhouse / vertical farm Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 100 g / m2 / year Estimated from comparison to agricultural field / vegetable garden
* Green roof Sangha et al. 2006- Litter Production, Decomposition and Nutrient Release in Cleared and Uncleared Pasture Systems of Central Queensland, Australia Queensland, Australia: pasture (2001-2002) 86.6 g / m2 / year We assume the same litterfall rate density as that of an agricultural field. This value refers to the litterfall rate density of eucalyptus pasture land that was converted from natural forest land five years prior to this study.
* Hardwood swamp Day 1979 Litter accumulation...Dismal Swamp VA Mixed hardwood site: Hardwood swamp (1977) 2477 kg / ha / year Leaf litter fall is sum of mean values for four sample dates between 1 Oct. 1977 and 11 December 1977.
Hardwood swamp Mitsch 1993 Wetlands Sedge Meadow, New York - low: Freshwater Marsh (1977) 619 g / m2 / year
* Heavy rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Hemlock – northern hardwood forest Davidson - Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA Michigan, US: Aspen hardwood () 148 g C / m2 / year
* High salt marsh Yu & Chmura 2010- Soil carbon may be maintained under grazing in a St Lawrence Estuary tidal marsh ÃŽle Verte, Quebec, Canada: salt marsh (2008) 322 g / m2 / year
* Highway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Hospital Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Hotel Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Landfill Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 109 g C / m2 / year This is the estimate of lawn clippings for a lawn with a high amount of fertilizer whose clippings were removed.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 71 g C / m2 / year This is the estimate of lawn clippings for a lawn with a moderate amount of fertilizer whose clippings were removed.
Lawn Falk 1980 - The Primary Productivity of Lawns in a Temperate Environment The Smithsonian Institution, Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, Washington D.C.: Lawn () 2163.86 g / ha / yr This value is the total fallen dead (clippings) material for a 10-year-old lawn which was never irrigated or fertilizer and on average was cut every 2 weeks during the growing season. The site is 0.7 ha so we divided the grams of fallen dead clippings by this size in order to get an estimate for a litterfall rate density of a full hectare.
Lawn Falk 1980 - The Primary Productivity of Lawns in a Temperate Environment The Smithsonian Institution, Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, Washington D.C.: Lawn () 9787.5 g / ha / yr This value is the total fallen dead (clippings) material for a well maintained lawn which was fertilized. The lawn was 0.2 hectares so we divided the total clippings by the sites size in order to get this litterfall rate density for a full hectare.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 26 g C / m2 / year This is the estimate of lawn clippings for a lawn with no management.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 136 g C / m2 / year This is the estimate of lawn clippings for a lawn with a high amount of fertilizer whose clippings were left on.
Lawn Baker et al. 2007 Effect of consumption choices on fluxes of CNP through households Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Household (Early 2000s) 88 g C / m2 / year This is the estimate of lawn clippings for a lawn with a moderate amount of fertilizer whose clippings were left on.
* Light rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Low salt marsh Yu & Chmura 2010- Soil carbon may be maintained under grazing in a St Lawrence Estuary tidal marsh ÃŽle Verte, Quebec, Canada: salt marsh (2008) 322 g / m2 / year
* Meadow Barbour et al. 1987 Terrestrial Plant Ecology Global: Temperate grassland () 312 g / m2 / year
* Mixed use: office / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Mixed use: restaurant / office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / retail building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: retail / office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Mixed use: retail / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Natural gas power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Oak hickory forest Hibbard et. al. 2005 - An Analysis of Soil Respiration across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems 51.31 N 4.52 E: deciduous broadleaf forest oak forest () 198 g C / m2 / year
* Office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Orchard Shen et al. 2011- Blowing litter across a landscape: effects on ecosystem nutrient flux and implications for landscape management Heshan City, Guangdong, China: orchard (2002-2004) 470.2 g / m2 / year This value refers to the litterfall rate density of a longan plantation.
* Ornamental garden Kumar and Nair 2004 - The enigma of tropical homegardens Global: Javanese homegardens () 10 Mg / ha / yr
* Parking lot Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Park savanna Scharenbroch & Lloyd 2006- Particulate Organic Matter and Soil Nitrogen Availability in Urban Landscapes Moscow, ID & Pullman, WA: urban area (2002-2003) 424 g / m2 / year park
* Paved ball field/court Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Pedestrian bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Pedestrian street / plaza Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Permeable pavers Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Photovoltaic panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Pier Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Pond Fisher & Likens 1973 - Energy Flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire: An Integrative Approach to Stream Ecosystem Metabolism Bear Brook, NH: Stream (1968-1970) 0.5547 g / m2 / year value for a stream
* Public assembly hall Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
Puddles on hardtops NULL REFERENCE NULL REFERENCE LOCATON: NULL ECOSYSTEM (NULL STUDY PERIOD) None DUMMY UNIT
* Restaurant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Retail building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* School or university Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Sewage treatment plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Shrub land Hibbard et. al. 2005 - An Analysis of Soil Respiration across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems 38.43N 120.97W: Woodland/shrubland () 58 g C / m2 / year
* Sidewalk Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Single family home Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Solar energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Solar heating panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Solid waste transfer plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Stadium Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Stream Fisher & Likens 1973 - Energy Flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire: An Integrative Approach to Stream Ecosystem Metabolism Bear Brook, NH: Stream (1968-1970) 0.5547 kg / m2 / yr This value includes litter fall inputs of leaf, branch, and miscellaneous. We added these values together and divided by the total bank-full area of the stream (5877 m2) in order to calculate the litterfall rate density.
Stream Roberts & Bilby 2009 - Urbanization alters litterfall rates and nutrient inputs to small Puget Lowland streams Puget Lowland, Washington: Stream () 310.25 g / m2 / year We calculated this value by taking the average of the range of the 10 plot's mean litterfall organic matter rate. We then multiplied that value by 365 in order to get an annual rate.
* Streetcar line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Street (collector) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Street trees Scharenbroch & Lloyd 2006- Particulate Organic Matter and Soil Nitrogen Availability in Urban Landscapes Moscow, ID & Pullman, WA: urban area (2002-2003) 557 g C / m2 / year
* Subway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Swimming pool Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Tidal energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Traffic slowed street Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Trail Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Tunnel Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Utility yard Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Warehouse Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Waste energy power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Water treatment plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Water/wastewater storage tank Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Wind farm Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year

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