ABOUT THIS PARAMETER

herbivory rate density

The amounf ot plant material eaten or removed by animals over a given period of time per unit area.

Used to calculate:harvest by wildlife

Varies by: ecosystem

Used ecosystem Reference Location: Ecosystem
(study period)
Value Units Notes
* Agricultural field / vegetable garden Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.0522 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Agricultural field / vegetable garden Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Airfield Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Airport terminal Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Alley Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Apartment building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Beach Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 110 g / m2 / year Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems is 18% of NPP. We assume NPP of 290 g C/m2/yr for beaches (see net primary productivity parameter), and that carbon is 47.5% of total biomass.
* Bike lane Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Bioswale Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Boulevard (arterial) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Camp Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 0.01746 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Camp Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Cemetery Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.0414 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Cemetery Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Cistern / rain barrels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Cliffs and rock outcrops Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.00306 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Cliffs and rock outcrops Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Cogeneration plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Compost bin Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Computer data center Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Cottages / Mobile home Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Deep water estuary NOAA 2015 Data compilations for primary production, herbivory, decomposition, and export for different types of marine communities, 1962-2002 (NODC Accession 0054500) Global: deepwater estuary (2015) 11.94 g C / m2 / year aggregation of herbivory rate of marine phytoplankton (7.665), benthic microalgal beds (1.6425) & seagrass meadows (2.628)(assuming all exist in deep water estuary) download dataset from url
* Derelict structures Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year
* Diesel power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Disturbed Land Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.12726 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Disturbed Land Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Eelgrass meadow Larkum, Orth, Duarte 2006- Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology, and Conservation Global: Seagrass () 4 g / m2 / year The consumption was assumed to be 15% of primary productivity. This value does not take into account that some herbivores prefer old, nutrient-poor leaves.
Eelgrass meadow Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 30 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 19 studies in of vascular plants in aquatic environments
Eelgrass meadow Nienhuis & Groenendijk 1986 - Consumption of eelgrass (Zostera marina) by birds and invertebrates: an annual budget SW Netherlands, Lake Grevelingen: Lagoon (May 1978-May 1979) 1.666 g C / m2 / year This value is the sum of estimated invertebrate consumption and total eelgrass consumption by birds.
* Elevated train Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Estuary NOAA 2015 Data compilations for primary production, herbivory, decomposition, and export for different types of marine communities, 1962-2002 (NODC Accession 0054500) Global: deepwater estuary (2015) 2075.76 g C / m2 / year freshwater/saltwater NOAA table data
* Factory Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Freshwater marsh Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 1052 g / m2 / year Median value for herbivory of aquatic macrophytes from 19 studies is 30% of net primary productivity lost (Cyr & Face 1993). We assume a net primary productivity of 1666 g C / m2 / yr for freshwater marshes (see NPP parameter) and that 47.5% of biomass is carbon.
Freshwater marsh Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Fuel storage tank Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Garage Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Gas station Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Geothermal pump Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Graywater recycling Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Greenhouse / vertical farm Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Green roof Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 g / m2 / year Assumed to be negligible.
* Hardwood swamp Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 0.2535 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value for aquatic macrophytes from 19 studies
Hardwood swamp Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 30 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for aquatic macrophytes from 19 studies
Hardwood swamp Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Heavy rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Hemlock – northern hardwood forest Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.0972 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Hemlock – northern hardwood forest Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* High salt marsh Nienhuis & Groenendijk 1986 - Consumption of eelgrass (Zostera marina) by birds and invertebrates: an annual budget SW Netherlands, Lake Grevelingen: Lagoon (May 1978-May 1979) 1.666 g C / m2 / year
* Highway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Hospital Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Hotel Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Landfill Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Lawn Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.296874 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Lawn Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Light rail line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Low salt marsh Nienhuis & Groenendijk 1986 - Consumption of eelgrass (Zostera marina) by birds and invertebrates: an annual budget SW Netherlands, Lake Grevelingen: Lagoon (May 1978-May 1979) 1.666 g C / m2 / year
* Meadow Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.07074 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Meadow Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Meadow Howe 2006 - Massive and Distinctive Effects of Meadow Voles on Grassland Vegetation Lisle, Illinois, US: Experimental prairie restorations in a converted hayfield (1998-2003) 40.14 g / m2 / year We calculated this value by subtracted the aboveground biomass where voles were excluded by the aboveground biomass where voles were admitted from 1998-2003. We then divided this value by 5 in order to get a yearly herbivory rate density.
* Mixed use: office / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: restaurant / retail building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: retail / office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Mixed use: retail / residential building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Natural gas power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Oak hickory forest Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.0972 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Oak hickory forest Matter et al. 2012 Invading from the garden? A comparison of leaf herbivory ... Near Cincinnati, OH: Forest (2006-2007) 0.07 proportion leaf damage (0 - 1) Not significantly different from damage to same species in ornamental settings
Oak hickory forest Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Office building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Orchard Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.096833 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Orchard Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Ornamental garden Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.468 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Ornamental garden Matter et al. 2012 Invading from the garden? A comparison of leaf herbivory ... Cincinnati, OH: Ornamental gardens (2006-2007) 0.05 proportion leaf damage (0 - 1) Not significantly different from damage to same species in natural settings
Ornamental garden Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Parking lot Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Park savanna Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.0216 kg / m2 / yr using new NPP, recycled value from Kim: Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Paved ball field/court Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Pedestrian bridge Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Pedestrian street / plaza Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Permeable pavers Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Photovoltaic panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Pier Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Pond Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 0.144 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value for aquatic macrophytes from 19 studies
Pond Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 30 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for aquatic macrophytes from 19 studies
Pond Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic algae () 79 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for aquatic algae in 25 studies including phytoplankton and reef periphyton
* Public assembly hall Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
Puddles on hardtops NULL REFERENCE NULL REFERENCE LOCATON: NULL ECOSYSTEM (NULL STUDY PERIOD) None DUMMY UNIT
* Restaurant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Retail building Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* School or university Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Sewage treatment plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Shrub land Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 0.0486 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Shrub land Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Terrestrial plants () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value for herbivory from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Sidewalk Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Single family home Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Solar energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Solar heating panels Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Solid waste transfer plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Stadium Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Stream Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Streetcar line Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Street (collector) Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Street trees Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 0.0216 kg / m2 / yr Value expressed in kg / m2 / yr as NPP for this ecosystem * % of NPP specified in here: Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
Street trees Cyr & Face 1993 Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Global survey: Aquatic macrophytes (i.e. plants) () 18 % of NPP (0 - 100) Median value from 67 studies in terrestrial ecosystems
* Subway Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Swimming pool Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Tidal energy facility Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Traffic slowed street Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Trail Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Tunnel Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Utility yard Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Warehouse Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Waste energy power plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Water treatment plant Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Water/wastewater storage tank Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kg / m2 / yr
* Wind farm Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 g C / m2 / year

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