ABOUT THIS PARAMETER

lighting and appliances energy demand rate density

The amount of energy used in a given area per day to power lights, home appliances, and household electronics.

Used to calculate:fossil fuels consumed and biomass fuels consumed

Varies by: use and lifestyle

Used use lifestyle Reference Location: Ecosystem
(study period)
Value Units Notes
* Agricultural use Average American Schnepf 2004. Energy Use in Agriculture. United States: Agriculture () 7.85 Btu / ft2 / year According to Figure 2 the US uses 1.7 Quadrillion Btu / year on agriculture and 20.7% of that is electricity, and Figure 1 (pg 3) says that this electricity is used for lighting and appliances (this makes 351 trillion, 900 billion Btu /year). Divided by the square footage of agricultural land in the US (4.482E13, according to Lubowski et al. 2006), this number is 7.85 Btu ft^-2.
* Agricultural use Average Earthling Schnepf 2004. Energy Use in Agriculture. United States: Agriculture () 7.85 Btu / ft2 / year Assume to be the same as average American lifestyle.
* Agricultural use Average New Yorker City of New York DOT 2009 Green Light: Sustainable Street Lighting New York City: Parks (2008) 576 kWh / acre / year The report indicates that New York City parks have 12,000 street lights, out of a total city managed street lighting of 300,000 lights (that is, parks amount to about 4% of all street lights) . The city uses approximately 6% of its total electricity consumption on street lighting. In 2008 the city government consumed 4.32 billion kWh of electricity. So the lights in parks used 0.04*0.06*4.32 billion kWh, or approximately 10.368 million kWh. City parks cover about 28,000 acres, of which approximately 10,000 are natural areas with relatively little lighting. Assuming all park street lights are concentrated in the 18,000 acres of active use, then the lighting energy demand rate density for New York City parks is approximately 576 kWh / acre / year
Agricultural use Average New Yorker Schnepf 2004. Energy Use in Agriculture. United States: Agriculture () 7.85 Btu / ft2 / year We have assumed the same value as an average American. According to Figure 2 the US uses 1.7 Quadrillion Btu / year on agriculture and 20.7% of that is electricity, and Figure 1 (pg 3) says that this electricity is used for lighting and appliances (this makes 351 trillion, 900 billion Btu /year). Divided by the square footage of agricultural land in the US (4.482E13, according to Lubowski et al. 2006), this number is 7.85 Btu ft^-2.
* Agricultural use Eco-conscious Hattam 2002. Organic Agriculture, Environment and Food Safety. Global: Agriculture () 5.024 Btu / ft2 / year Define No Impact man's agriculture as organic or no till. 64% of 7.850000 (average American agriculture) from Schnepf 2004.
* Agricultural use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Factory / industrial use Average American EIA 2006. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey United States: Manufacturing () 18220 Btu / ft2 / year Table shows energy consumption by end-use in trillion btu / year. The facility lighting use (215 trillion btu) was divided by the 2006 population (299 million) to get per capita (719,064 Btu/person/year). This number was divided by US square footage - 1.037 E 14.
Factory / industrial use Average American Navigant Consulting, Inc. 2002 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization USA: Built ecosystems (2001) 4856.673323 kWh / sq ft / year Furniture and Fixtures. We divided Energy Consumption by Building Type (kWh) in Table F.6 by Average Square Feet (ft2) in Table F.1 for this listed type of industrial use.
Factory / industrial use Average American Navigant Consulting, Inc. 2002 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization USA: Built ecosystems (2001) 6406.081481 kWh / sq ft / year Printing and Publishing. We divided Energy Consumption by Building Type (kWh) in Table F.6 by Average Square Feet (ft2) in Table F.1 for this listed type of industrial use.
Factory / industrial use Average American Navigant Consulting, Inc. 2002 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization USA: Built ecosystems (2001) 6787.096184 kWh / sq ft / year Food and Kindred Products. We divided Energy Consumption by Building Type (kWh) in Table F.6 by Average Square Feet (ft2) in Table F.1 for this listed type of industrial use.
Factory / industrial use Average American Navigant Consulting, Inc. 2002 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization USA: Built ecosystems (2001) 4667.792006 kWh / sq ft / year Apparel and Other Textile Products. We divided Energy Consumption by Building Type (kWh) in Table F.6 by Average Square Feet (ft2) in Table F.1 for this listed type of industrial use.
Factory / industrial use Average American Navigant Consulting, Inc. 2002 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization USA: Built ecosystems (2001) 6261.24771 kWh / sq ft / year Industrial Machinery and Equipment. We divided Energy Consumption by Building Type (kWh) in Table F.6 by Average Square Feet (ft2) in Table F.1 for this listed type of industrial use.
* Factory / industrial use Average Earthling EIA 2006. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey United States: Manufacturing () 18220 Btu / ft2 / year Assumed to be the same as average American. Table shows energy consumption by end-use in trillion btu / year. The facility lighting use (215 trillion btu) was divided by the 2006 population (299 million) to get per capita (719,064 Btu/person/year). This number was divided by US square footage - 1.037 E 14.
* Factory / industrial use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 192.36 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity use intensity for "health" buildings in New York City was 229 kWh/m2/yr. Howard et al. (2012), Table 2, indicates that 0.84 of this was for "base electricity", so we calculate 0.84 * 229 = 192.36 kWh/m2/yr. Note that under the current ecosystem-use definitions, hospitals are categorized as "factory/industrial" uses.
Factory / industrial use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 32 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity use intensity for "other commerical" buildings in New York City
Factory / industrial use Average New Yorker EIA 2006. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey United States: Manufacturing () 18220 Btu / ft2 / year Assumed to be the same as average American. Table shows energy consumption by end-use in trillion btu / year. The facility lighting use (215 trillion btu) was divided by the 2006 population (299 million) to get per capita (719,064 Btu/person/year). This number was divided by US square footage - 1.037 E 14.
* Factory / industrial use Eco-conscious EIA 2006. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey United States: Manufacturing () 18220 Btu / ft2 / year Assumed to be the same as average American. Table shows energy consumption by end-use in trillion btu / year. The facility lighting use (215 trillion btu) was divided by the 2006 population (299 million) to get per capita (719,064 Btu/person/year). This number was divided by US square footage - 1.037 E 14.
* Factory / industrial use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Garage / storage use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 22200 Btu / ft2 / year This value represents the annual energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Garage / storage use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 22200 Btu / ft2 / year Due to a lack of global lighting and appliances consumption data, we have assumed the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the United States. This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Garage / storage use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 97.58 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity use intensity for warehouses in New York City was 119 kWh/m2/yr (std err 30.3). Table 2 in Howard et al. (2012) indicates that 0.82 of this consumption was for "base electricity." 119 * 0.82 = 97.58 kWh/m2/yr
Garage / storage use Average New Yorker Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 11.06 kWh / sq ft / year Based on Manhattan Mini Storage, 220 South Street energy consumption. 3037E3 kWh / year / 25525m2 converted to kWh/ft2
Garage / storage use Average New Yorker U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 22200 Btu / ft2 / year Estimated same as Average American.
* Garage / storage use Eco-conscious Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 11.06 kWh / sq ft / year Based on Manhattan Mini Storage, 220 South Street energy consumption. 3037E3 kWh / year / 25525m2 converted to kWh/ft2
* Garage / storage use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Hotel use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 34900 Btu / ft2 / year This value represents the annual energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Hotel use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 34900 Btu / ft2 / year We assume the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the average American. This value represents the annual energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Hotel use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 72.898 kWh / m2 / yr Howard et al. (2012) Table 3 gives multi-family residential buildings in Manhattan an estimated electricity use intensity of 88.9 kWh/m2/yr. Table 2 indicates that 0.82 of that consumption is for "base electricity." We assume these figures are similar for hotels. (0.82 * 88.9) = 72.898
Hotel use Average New Yorker U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 34900 Btu / ft2 / year We assume the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the average American. This value represents the annual energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Hotel use Eco-conscious U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 34900 Btu / ft2 / year We assume the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the average New Yorker and average American. This value represents the annual energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Hotel use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Hunter / gatherer use Average American Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Hunter / gatherer use Average Earthling Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Hunter / gatherer use Average New Yorker Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Hunter / gatherer use Eco-conscious Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Hunter / gatherer use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Urban Area () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Office use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 43700 Btu / ft2 / year This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Office use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 43700 Btu / ft2 / year Due to a lack of global lighting and appliances consumption data, we have assumed the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the United States. This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Office use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 237.63 kWh / m2 / yr Electricity use intensity for New York City office buildings in 2009 was 276 kWh/m2/yr (std err 4.66). According to Howard et al. (2012), 0.86 of total electricity use was for "base electricity", so we calculate 0.86 * 276 = 237.63 kWh/m2/yr
Office use Average New Yorker U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 23100 Btu / ft2 / year Same as Average American.
Office use Average New Yorker Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 21.37 kWh / sq ft / year 230 kWh/m2 -> convert to ft2. Base electric, not including space cooling.
* Office use Eco-conscious Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 21.37 kWh / sq ft / year 230 kWh/m2 -> convert to ft2. Base electric, not including space cooling.
* Office use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Public assembly use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 15700 Btu / ft2 / year This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Public assembly use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 15700 Btu / ft2 / year Due to a lack of global lighting and appliances consumption data, we have assumed the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the United States. This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Public assembly use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 116.44 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity use intensity for "education" buildings in New York City was 142 kWh/m2/yr (std err 26). Howard et al. (2012), Table 2, indicates that 0.82 of this consumption was for "base electricity." 0.82 * 142 = 116.44
Public assembly use Average New Yorker Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 25.6 kWh / sq ft / year Based on Lincoln Center - lot address 60 Columbus Avenue. Energy use - 6593E3 kWh / year / 23913m^2.
Public assembly use Average New Yorker U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 15700 Btu / ft2 / year Estimated same as Average American.
* Public assembly use Eco-conscious Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 25.6 kWh / sq ft / year Assumed to be the same as Average New Yorker lifestyle. Based on Lincoln Center - lot address 60 Columbus Avenue. Energy use - 6593E3 kWh / year / 23913m^2.
* Public assembly use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Residential use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 31000000 Btu/household/year This value refers to the average energy consumed per household per year for appliances and lighting in the United States.
* Residential use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 31000000 Btu/household/year Due to a lack of global lighting and appliances consumption data, we have assumed the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the United States. This value refers to the average energy consumed per household per year for appliances and lighting in the United States.
* Residential use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 72.9 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity use intensity for Residential Multi-Family MN (Manhattan) is 88.9 kWh/m2/yr (std error 12). According to Howard et al. (2012) - Table 2, "base electricity" is 0.82 parts of total electricity. 0.82 * 88.9 = 72.90 kWh/m2/yr
Residential use Average New Yorker Global Energy Partners Project Managers 2010- Energy Efficiency Potential Study for Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. Volume 2: Electric Potential Report New York: urban landscape (2005-2009) 4453459.02 Btu/household/year This reference indicates the total average per dwelling unit electricity consumption and notes that appliances constitute 8% of this total and that lighting makes up 19% of this total. This value reflects 27% of the reported average per dwelling (or household) consumption of electricity.
Residential use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 54.7 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity intensity for Residential Multi-Family NYC-MN (New York City outside of Manhattan)
Residential use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 49.2 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity use intensity for Residential 1–4 family building in New York City
* Residential use Eco-conscious Global Energy Partners Project Managers 2010- Energy Efficiency Potential Study for Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. Volume 2: Electric Potential Report New York: urban landscape (2005-2009) 4453459.02 Btu/household/year We assume the value to be the same as average New Yorker lifestyle. This reference indicates the total average per dwelling unit electricity consumption and notes that appliances constitute 8% of this total and that lighting makes up 19% of this total. This value reflects 27% of the reported average per dwelling unit consumption of electricity.
* Residential use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Restaurant use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 144100 Btu / ft2 / year This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Restaurant use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 144100 Btu / ft2 / year Due to a lack of global lighting and appliances consumption data, we have assumed the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the United States. This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Restaurant use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 147.6 kWh / m2 / yr Estimated electricity use intensity for "stores" in New York City was 180 kWh/m2/yr (std err 54.0). Howard et al. (2012), Table 2, indicates that 0.82 of this use was for "base electricity", or 0.82 * 180 = 147.6 kWh/m2/yr
Restaurant use Average New Yorker U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 144100 Btu / ft2 / year Assumed to be the same as the average American.
* Restaurant use Eco-conscious U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 144100 Btu / ft2 / year Assumed to be the same as average American.
* Restaurant use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Retail use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 37900 Btu / ft2 / year This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Retail use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 37900 Btu / ft2 / year Due to a lack of global lighting and appliances consumption data, we have assumed the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the United States. This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Retail use Average New Yorker Howard et al. 2012 Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use New York City: Urban ecosystems (2009) 167.4 kWh / m2 / yr Electricity use intensity for stores in New York City (2009) was 180 kWh/m2/yr (std err 4.66). Howard et al. (2012), Table 2, indicates that 0.93 of this electricity use was for "base electricity." We calculate 0.93 * 180 = 167.4 kWh/m2/yr
Retail use Average New Yorker Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 25.55 kWh / sq ft / year Base electric, not including cooling. 275 kWh/m2 converted to kWh/ft2.
Retail use Average New Yorker U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 37900 Btu / ft2 / year Estimated same as Average American.
* Retail use Eco-conscious Modi 2012. Estimated Total Annual Building Energy Consumption for NYC New York City: Buildings () 25.55 kWh / sq ft / year Base electric, not including cooling. 275 kWh/m2 converted to kWh/ft2.
* Retail use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr
* Transportation use Average American U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 22200 Btu / ft2 / year We assume the same lighting and appliances consumption rate density as a garage/storage use. This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Transportation use Average Earthling U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 22200 Btu / ft2 / year Due to a lack of global lighting and appliances consumption data, we have assumed the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the United States. We assume the same lighting and appliances consumption rate density as a garage/storage use. This value represents the energy consumption of refrigeration, lighting, computers, and other appliances for this building type.
* Transportation use Average New Yorker U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 22200 Btu / ft2 / year We assume the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the average American. This value refers to the lighting and appliances energy consumption of a warehouse.
* Transportation use Eco-conscious U.S. Department of Energy 2012 - 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book US: Buildings (2010) 22200 Btu / ft2 / year We assume the same lighting and appliances energy consumption rate density as that of the average American and average New Yorker. This value refers to the lighting and appliances energy consumption of a warehouse.
* Transportation use Lenape Person Assumed New York City: Mannahatta () 0 kWh / m2 / yr

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